Mary Chase Barney (ca. 1785-1872)

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Mary Chase Barney (ca. 1785-1872)

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

by Nancy Bramucci Sheads

Mary Chase Barney was born ca. 1785, the daughter of Chief Justice Samuel Chase and his wife, Hannah Kitty Giles. She was likely born in Annapolis, Maryland, living there until 1786 when the Chase family moved to Baltimore. Little is known about Mary’s early life or education, but she probably had the typical education deemed appropriate to young women of her social status during the early nineteenth century, supplemented by books found in her father’s library.

As the daughter of the illustrious Judge Chase, Mary secured a place in Baltimore society where she was celebrated for her wit and personality. Her friends and acquaintances included the Caton sisters and Elizabeth Patterson Bonaparte.[1] Henry Brackenridge recollected a visit to the Chase home where he unexpectedly served as Mary’s escort for a party that evening at the home of one of her friends: “I felt highly delighted with the idea of escorting the celebrated Mary Chace, her eye sparkling with intelligence, and her conversation full of wit and sense, envied by her own sex, and feared and admired by the other.”[2]

It is unknown how Mary met her future husband, William Bedford Barney, but they certainly moved in the same social circles. William was the son of the celebrated Revolutionary War hero, Commodore Joshua Barney, and followed his father into the military, serving as a captain in the Maryland Militia. In 1807, William’s wife, Rebecca Ridgely, died after a brief illness. Now a widower, William was left to look after the three surviving children from the union.[3] The vivacious Miss Chase quickly caught his eye. On 17 October 1807, Mary – in “a dress of white satin, decorated in the Hussar style, wearing and elegant military cap with nodding plumes” – presented the standard of the First Baltimore Hussars to Barney “… in the presence of a large and brilliant assemblage of spectators.”[4] Nearly a year later, on 9 September 1808, Mary and William were wed in Princeton, New Jersey by the Rev. Mr. Comfort.[5] The elopement appears to have met the approval of Mary’s parents and the young couple took up residence nearby.[6]

After her marriage, Mary settled into a world that revolved around her home, her husband, and her children. The Barney household resounded with the cries and laughter of children, as Mary gave birth to fourteen babies over the next twenty years. Tragedy struck the family though, as five children died young.

The demands of caring for such a large family weighed heavily on Mary, and the family’s financial struggles strained her relationships with her sister, Elizabeth, and their mother, Hannah Chase. Elizabeth acquired considerable property upon the death of her first husband, George Dugan, in 1813 “… which left her in “comfortable if not in affluent circumstances.”[7] Elizabeth’s marriage in 1818 to Dr. Skipwith Holland Coale further guaranteed her financial security.[8] In contrast, the Barney household was strained by the needs of so many children and Mary was often in “straitened circumstances owing to the misfortunes of her husband in commerce.”[9] William was well known for his military service, including service with his father in the defense of the Washington and Baltimore against the British in 1814. However, William was not as well suited for civilian life and although he engaged in various commercial endeavors, he was not successful.[10] Mary found herself dependent upon frequent monetary gifts from her sister, particularly during William’s tenure in Europe as the Consul at Trieste.[11]

The family was dependent upon William’s salary as the naval officer for the port of Baltimore, a position he had held since 1818, when he was appointed to replace his father.[12] After years of routine reappointment, William was dismissed from office in April 1829 – allegedly for his support of John Quincy Adams during the 1828 presidential election.[13] Although William had been personally assured by the President that he would not be replaced, Jackson later claimed that the rules governing appointments prevented him from renewing William’s tenure. For the first time in nearly twelve years, William had no means with which to support his family.

In response, Mary stepped out of the bounds of a quiet wife and mother and directly challenged the President’s actions by composing an unreserved and scathing letter to him in which she detailed the “injury you have inflicted on a meritorious officer and his helpless family.” (Scharf, 434) She directed her anger at Jackson’s exploitation of the spoils system to reward supporters and punish enemies, real or perceived. “My husband, Sir” Mary wrote, “was never your enemy,” although she quickly acknowledged that her husband’s preference for Adams was “because he thought him qualified and you unqualified for the station.” Moreover, she felt Jackson alone was responsible for the effect on her family. “Besides,” she wrote, “you were apprised of our poverty; you knew the dependence of eight little children for food and raiment upon my husband’s salary. You knew that, advanced in years as he was, without the means to prosecute any regular business, and without friends able to assist him, the world would be to him a barren heath, an inhospitable wild.”[14]

Mary Barney did not stop there. Conjuring the revolutionary spirits of Samuel Chase and Joshua Barney, Mary reminded Jackson of the role that both families had played in the history of the country, “with those achievements posterity will not condescend to compare yours.”

“By the side of that father, in the second British war, fought the son, and the glorious 12th of September bears testimony to his unshaken intrepidity. A wife a husband thus derived, a family of children drawing their existence from this double Revolutionary fountain, you have recklessly, causelessly, perfidiously, and there inhumanly cast helpless and destitute upon the icy bosom of the world, and the children and grandchildren of Judge Chase and Commodore Barney are poverty-stricken upon the soil which owes its freedom and fertility in part to their heroic patriotism.”[15]

Barney jackson.jpg

As could be expected, Mary’s efforts did little to reverse Jackson’s decision, however, her letter quickly gained national attention and was published widely, garnering her both supporters and critics. One editor praised “her power of reasoning and language” and said that “It is a pity that so gifted a lady should be obliged to stoop from her proper place in society to wrestle with professed political gladiators.” (Boston Courier, 5/20/1830) Others considered her letter “violent and abusive.” (Hampden Whig, 6/2/1830) Her letter was used by Jackson’s detractors as evidence of his abuse of political power.[16]

While Mary’s actions did not restore her husband’s position, she found her voice and an audience. In August 1830, a notice appeared in the Baltimore Patriot announcing a new periodical – The National Magazine; or Lady’s Emporium – with Mary Barney at the helm as editor and William as her agent. Local newspapers such as the Frederick Town Herald not only published the proposal, but lauded the effort, encouraging its readers “disposed to aid her in the laudable undertaking of contributing to the support of a numerous and helpless family, to subscribe to the work.”[17] The magazine would be a mixture of literary and political essays in which Mary promised that “In the struggle which is now going on between civil liberty and wild anarchy, under the garb of democracy, she will sometimes raise her feeble voice; not as a disputant in the arena of party, but as an advocate for certain great principles which it may become her sex and condition to feel a lively and deep interest in maintaining, in these times of miscalled ‘reformation.’”[18] While acknowledging her unusual role as the magazine’s editor, Mary refused to recognize nay-sayers, for “If there are any who would still frown upon this last struggle of a mother for her family, they are at liberty to withhold their support.--A Daughter of the Revolution, and the grand-children of Revolutionary Heroes, will perish ere they beg in the land where they should live in honor.”[19]

The National Magazine debuted in November 1830 and its editor intended a periodical that would be “generally literary and occasionally political.”[20] As would be expected, the magazine suffered from growing pains. Copies of magazine were hand delivered to subscribers in the vicinity of Baltimore, but the designated couriers proved unreliable, forcing William Barney to request notification from subscribers who had not received the first two issues: “We are induced to make this remark, from the many complaints that have been made of the non receipt of the numbers.”[21] However, reviews were generally encouraging. An extract was published on the front page of the Columbian Gazette, a Georgetown newspaper, where “it will be found to be finely written and conveys just sentiments in beautiful language.” The review also noted that “contributors to this periodical must be persons of taste, learning, and ability, and the editor evinces much judgment in her selected articles.”[22]

Mary refused to give in to the prevailing stereotype that women would not be interested in serious and insightful commentaries on politics and other topics of the day. Each issue included “… a serious historical article, at least two travel pieces, several thoughtful essays, a biography, criticism of plays, books, or architecture, and lengthy discussions of current political issues at home and abroad, with a half-dozen poems scattered throughout.”[23] Readers must have found the content rather weighty when compared to other publications of the day that catered to a feminine audience by filling their pages with stories of romance. By the third issue, Mary was forced to acknowledge the complaints of her readers: “’Oh! I like Mrs. Barney’s “NATIONAL MAGAZINE,” very much – but there’s no love in it!’”[24]

The National Magazine produced but nine issues, unable to compete in a market saturated with newspapers and periodicals whose editors were far more willing to cater to less serious feminine pursuits such as light poetry, fashion, and romance. At a cost of five dollars per year, a subscription to The National Magazine far exceeded the price of other popular magazines, such as Godey’s, by as much as two dollars.[25] Patronage was low and Mary was despondent “… enough to sink the stoutest heart.”[26] Although ambitious in intent, the periodical fell short of Mary’s expectations, relying “… more perhaps than justifiable or prudent, upon the hope that the intrinsic merits of her work would be the best and surest passport to the public favor; and that public favor would be … patronage and support.”[27] Without support by advertisers – not a single advertisement appeared in the magazine[28] – and sufficient subscribers to sustain the cost of publication, it could not continue. Worse yet, the periodical did little to improve the perilous financial situation of the family. In the May 1831 issue, Mary confessed openly that “the poverty of her means” prevented her from adequately compensating writers.[29]

Mary continued to use the magazine as a vehicle for her political views and literary tastes until it was discontinued in July 1831. True to the end, the final issue included a bitter criticism of Andrew Jackson.[30] Lamenting its demise, the editor of the Frederick Town Herald wrote: “As much as we regret the event that which compelled her to resort to her pen to support a numerous and dependent family, we feel proud that she has used it in a manner which is creditable to her feelings as a parent and honorable to the state of literature in our domestic circles; and we hope the ‘Lady’s Magazine,’ which she has edited for more than a year past, will long remain evidence of what a mother can do when prompted by the most hallowed impulse of the female heart.”[31]

Mary did not have to look far to find her next endeavor – a biography of her famed father-in-law, Commodore Joshua Barney. In October 1831, the proposed book was advertised, and it would be “…put to press as soon as the amount of subscription shall be sufficient to justify the risk.”[32] If the book attracted sufficient patronage, the volume would include “an engraved likeness of the Commodore, from a Portrait thought by his family to be a very perfect resemblance.”[33] There was little doubt that Mary would succeed: “His daughter-in-law is eminently qualified for the task she has assumed, for independent of her acknowledged talents as a writer, she is in possession of authentic records and enjoyed a personal knowledge of Commodore Barney’s character which cannot fail to make the memoir both instructing and interesting.”[34]

Learning from mistakes made in the financial management of her magazine, Mary embarked on an extended journey along the east coast to promote her book and sell subscriptions prior to its publication. Her name and reputation preceded her:

“In Philadelphia, her arrival was announced in almost every paper, and particular attention paid to her by the members of the convention there – at New York, and we say it with great gratification, she was equally we received, and we are proud to pay a brother type, though of a different cast – the compliment of having exerted himself in Mrs. B’s behalf.—We mean Mr. Noah. At Boston, where that lady is now, she has been most graciously received, and we find her name announced in the papers there without respect to parties. Thus it should be, when a lady steps forward to give her aid to the support of a family otherwise dependent.”[35]

She must have been pleased by the interest her tour generated and the acknowledgment of her place in the public realm and newspapers such the Pennsylvania Whig were willing to use this opportunity to remind them: “The visit of this accomplished lady to our city, at this time, together with her proposed Biography of one of the most gallant soldiers of 1776, have induced us to re-publish her ELOQUENT LETTER to GEN. JACKSON, written in 1830; which we commend to the attention of all classes of readers -- for those who even differ from her in political sentiment, cannot fail to derive pleasure from the beauty of style, and fervour of eloquence that distinguishes this much admired and patriotic epistle.”[36]

Although the book appears to have been well received, it is unclear how much income she derived from its publication. She may not have found publishing to be lucrative enough and she had already tried running a boarding house after William lost his job as naval officer in 1829.[37] She had to turn to other means to support her family. In September 1834, Mary opened a boarding and day school for girls in Frederick that was quickly endorsed by the Frederick Herald: “Mrs. Barney’s excellent education and extensive acquitements [sic] in French and English literature, peculiarly qualify her for the duties of an accomplished teacher; and from the disposition already manifested to patronize it, we have no doubt that the institution will speedily assume a high stand among the female academies [sic] already established in this city.”[38] While little is known about the school, it appears that it was at least initially successful. A notice printed in the Frederick Herald reported that “we had good reason to presume that her efforts in Frederick would be crowned with success, but we were not prepared to have our expectations so soon realized.”[39] Boarding students paid $180 per year while day students were charged $30 per year ($20 per year for younger children).[40]

In the meantime, William attempted various ventures to support his family. After losing his position as naval officer for the port of Baltimore, William quickly placed notices in Baltimore newspapers announcing his availability as a Custom House broker to assist merchants and ship captains in completing required customs paperwork.[41] Yet clearly William was in poor health, a fact not only mentioned by Mary in her letter to Andrew Jackson, but stated directly by William, who was initially unable to establish an office until “… the state of my health will authorize my entering on its duties.”[42] Later that year, he became an author in his own right, publishing a guide to weights sold by subscription.[43] William’s commercial endeavors continued to flounder[44] and on 22 October 1838, The Sun (Baltimore) published an announcement directing William to appear once again before the Commissioners of Insolvent Debtors on the third of December “to answer allegations.”[45] Before he could appear, William died on 18 November 1838,[46] leaving Mary solely responsible for the support of her household.[47]

By 1850, Mary was residing in Washington, DC in the household of her son Samuel Chase Barney and his wife Mary Eleanor.[48] She may have alternated between the homes of her children since she is also enumerated in the 1850 Census in the households of her daughters Fanny Steele in Kentucky and Ann Steele in the Dakota Territory. However, her home base was the District of Columbia where she lived in the 1st Ward in a house that she shared with some of her adult children.

On 1 May 1870, Mary celebrated her eight-fifth birthday in the home of her daughter Fanny Steele. She was in failing health, having suffered a stroke that left her bed-ridden, but still “A large number of her children and friends gathered to do her honor....” [49] In August 1871, Mary “was struck with paralysis in her right side” and on 30 June 1872, she died at the age of eighty-eight at the home of her daughter Mary Rogers. Newspapers along the East Coast noted her passing, recalling her role in Baltimore society and her infamous letter to President Jackson:

Mrs. BARNEY was on intimate terms with all the Presidents and their families, from WASHINGTON to LINCOLN, with the exception of Gen. JACKSON, and attracted much attention to herself during his Presidency on account of a letter she publicly addressed to him. This letter was such a stinging one that it was printed on satin and circulated as a campaign document against Old Hickory when running for his second term as President.[50]

Her funeral was held at the Church of the Epiphany in Washington, DC followed by burial at Oak Lawn Cemetery.[51]

Outstanding achievement:

Mary Chase Barney was a woman of strength and character who was willing to step out of the traditional female domestic roles in order to support her family. She became known nationwide for a letter written to President Andrew Jackson written in protest of the removal of her husband, William Bedford Barney, from his position as naval office for the port of Baltimore. In August 1830, she established The National Magazine, or Ladies’ Emporium. Although Mary Barney established the periodical as a means to support her family after her husband lost his job, she used it as a vehicle for her bold political views as well as a means for intellectual growth for women. Although the periodical folded in July 1831, she learned from her mistakes, embarking upon a subscription drive to major cities along the east coast to raise money for her next endeavour, a biography of her famed father-in-law, Commodore Joshua Barney. In 1834, she established a boarding school for girls in Frederick, Maryland

Field: publishing, editing, education

Notes:

[1] In 1803, Jerome Bonaparte visited Baltimore, staying at the home of Commodore Joshua Barney for several weeks. While at the races at Govans, Jerome saw Betsy Patterson for the first time: “A single glance was enough to fire his heart – he had never seen so lovely a creature before, and forgetting brother, empire, future prospects, and everything but the fascinating object before him, he insisted upon an introduction to her, and very soon appealed to the friendship of the Commodore to aid him in his matrimonial designs.” Although the Commodore tried to prevent the marriage by prevailing upon both parties, the marriage took place on Christmas day in 1804. In November 1812, Betsy Bonaparte filed a divorce petition with the Maryland General Assembly. William Bedford Barney, a delegate for Baltimore City, was instrumental in the passage of the bill through the House of Delegates.

       See:  Mary Barney, ed. Biographical Memoir of the Late Commodore Joshua Barney; From Autographical Notes and Journals in Possession of His Family, and other Authentic Sources. (Boston: Gray and Bowen, 1832): 240-241; Charlene M. Boyer Lewis, Elizabeth Patterson Bonaparte: An American Aristocrat in the Early Republic (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012): 110-112.

[2] H. M. Brackenridge, Recollections of Persons and Places in the West. (Philadelphia: J. B. Lippencott & Co, 1868), pp. 130-131.

[3] One child, Rebecca Ridgely Barney, died in 1801. Rebecca was born 8 July 1801, baptized 17 July 1801, and died 24 July 1801. See: St. Paul's Parish (Baltimore, Maryland), Parish Register, 1797-1837, p. 62 entry 26 and p. 63 entry 1.

[4] “Communication.” Maryland Gazette (Annapolis, Maryland) 22 October 1807, p. 2, col. 3.

[5] Family data, Samuel Chase Family Bible, original owned by Maryland State Archives, Annapolis, Maryland, MSA SC 603(1); matrimony notice, The North American, and Mercantile Daily Advertiser, 20 September 1808, p. 3, col. 1.

[6]

[7] Chancery Record. William Barney and wife vs. Hannah Kitty Chase and others. 12 December 1825, Chancery Court, Liber 128, f. 195, Bill of complaint.

[8] Elizabeth Chase (1788-1853) married first George Dugan (d. 1813) on 8 November 1804 and second Dr. Skipwith Holland Coale (1787-1832) on 29 January 1818. By her second husband, she had five children: Skipwith H. Coale (1822-1845), Thomas Chase Coale (d. 1830), Eliza M. Coale (1820-1904), Isaac Webster Coale (1823-1904) and Samuel Chase Coale. At her death, she was buried in Westwood Graveyard, Harford County, Maryland.

[9] Chancery Record. William Barney and wife vs. Hannah Kitty Chase and others. 12 December 1825, Chancery Court, Liber 128, f. 195, Bill of complaint; St. Paul's Protestant Episcopal Church, St. Paul's Parish, Baltimore, Maryland, Parish Register III, 1797-1837, p. 275 entry 8.

[10] For example, in 1813, William Barney was jailed for insolvency and released after submitting of list of his property as his bond for appearance in court and publicly notifying his creditors in the newspapers every week for three months. See: “Baltimore County.” Baltimore Patriot (Baltimore, Maryland), 8 February 1814, p. 1, col. 4.

[11] Chancery Record. William Barney and wife vs. Hannah Kitty Chase and others. 12 December 1825, Chancery Court, Liber 128, f. 212, Answer of Elizabeth Coale; William was appointed by President James Madison to serve as Consul at Trieste. He returned to Baltimore in 1817. See: Engine of Liberty and Uniontown Advertiser (Uniontown, MD) 9 March 1815, p. 3, col. 1; Bartgis’s Republican Gazette and General Advertiser (Frederick, Maryland) 13 September 1817, p. 2, col. 4

[12] William Barney was nominated for the position of Naval Officer for the port of Baltimore by James Monroe on 15 December 1818 to replace his father who had died on 1 December 1818. The nomination was approved on 17 December 1817. See: U.S. Congress. Senate Executive Journal, 15th Cong., 1st sess., 17 December 1818.

[13] William Barney was replaced by Dabney S. Carr, editor of the Baltimore Republican, a newspaper favorable to the Jackson administration. In her biography of Joshua Barney, Mary characterized her husband’s replacement as “a political parasite and minion.” See: Mary Barney, p. 258.

[14]

[15]

[16] Mary had at least one detractor. On 9 August 1830, the Indiana Palladium published the letter of a Mrs. Mary Lane of Ohio written in response to Mary Barney’s tirade against Andrew Jackson. Mrs. Lane was distinctly unsympathetic to Mary’s situation. Noting that while she had no pretention of rank, Mary had been “…cheered by the smiles, and sustained by the patronage of three successive Presidents, and for twenty years have sat at the board of luxury, clothed in fine linen . . . while I have lived in retirement and forgone the pleasures of society.” Nor was she sympathetic to Mary’s charge that Jackson was responsible for poverty awaiting her children. In the Ohio valley, a mother would not give birth to her eighth child if the eldest were not already able to hold a plough or turn a spinning wheel. In fact, according to Mrs. Lane, a mother in the Ohio valley would blush to admit being the mother of so many helpless children and would rather “see her hardy sons day laborers and her daughters spinsters and washer women.” See: “Mrs. Lane’s Letter” originally published in the Indiana Palladium, 14 August 1830 and reprinted in the Republican Citizen and State Advertiser (Frederick, Maryland) 10 September 1830, p. 2, col. 2.

[17] Frederick Town Herald (Frederick, Maryland) 27 November 1830, p. 3, col. 1.

[18] Baltimore Patriot & Mercantile Advertiser (Baltimore, Maryland) 28 August 1830, p. 3, col. 3.

[19] Baltimore Patriot & Mercantile Advertiser (Baltimore, Maryland) 28 August 1830, p. 3, col. 3.

[20] Baltimore Patriot & Mercantile Advertiser (Baltimore, Maryland) 28 August 1830, p. 3, col. 3.

[21] Baltimore Patriot & Mercantile Advertiser (Baltimore, Maryland) 1 January 1831, p. 3, col. 3.

[22] Baltimore Gazette and Daily Advertiser (Baltimore, Maryland) 26 April 1831, p. 2, col. 4.

[23] Kathleen L. Endres and Theresa L. Leuck, eds., Women’s Periodicals in the United States: Consumer Magazines. (Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1995): 245.

[24] “Editoress in Distress.” The National Magazine; or Lady’s Emporium. January 1831, vol. 1, no. 3: 193.

[25] Endres and Leuck, eds., Women’s Periodicals in the United States, pp. 249-250.

[26] “Prolegomena.” The National Magazine; or Lady’s Emporium. May 1831, vol. 2, no. 1: 2.

[27] “Prolegomena.” The National Magazine; or Lady’s Emporium. May 1831, vol. 2, no. 1: 1.

[28] Endres and Leuck, eds., Women’s Periodicals in the United States, p. 250.

[29] “Prolegomena.” The National Magazine; or Lady’s Emporium. May 1831, vol. 2, no. 1: 4

[30] “General Jackson.” The National Magazine. July 1831, vol. 2, no. 3: pp. 209-212.

[31] Frederick Town Herald (Frederick, Maryland) 8 October 1831, p. 4, col. 5.

[32] Baltimore Patriot & Mercantile Advertiser (Baltimore, Maryland) 12 October 1831, p. 3, col. 2.

[33] Baltimore Patriot & Mercantile Advertiser (Baltimore, Maryland) 12 October 1831, p. 3, col. 2.

[34] Frederick Town Herald (Frederick, Maryland), 8 October 1831, p. 4, col. 5.

[35] Frederick Town Herald (Frederick, Maryland), 3 December 1831, p. 1, col. 4.

[36] “[Mrs. Mary Barney],” news/opinion, Baltimore Patriot & Mercantile Advertiser (Baltimore, Maryland) 11 October 1831, p. 2, col. 1.

[37] Baltimore Patriot (Baltimore, Maryland) 15 April 1829.

[38] Notice in the Frederick Herald (Frederick, Maryland) reprinted in the Baltimore Patriot & Mercantile Advertiser (Baltimore, Maryland) 19 August 1834, p. 2, col. 1.

[39] Baltimore Gazette and Daily Advertiser (Baltimore, Maryland) 13 December 1834, p. 2, col. 7.

[40] Thomas J. C. Williams and Folger McKinsey. History of Frederick County, Maryland. Vol. 1. (Baltimore: Regional Pub. Co, reprinted 1967): 226.

[41] Baltimore Gazette and Daily Advertiser (Baltimore, Maryland) 1 May 1829, p. 3, col. 4.

[42] Baltimore Patriot (Baltimore, Maryland), 29 April 1829.

[43] William Bedford Barney. Par of Weights, or, Table of the Relative Proportions Actually Existing Between the Weights of Foreign Commercial Countries, and those of the United States. Baltimore: Benjamin Edes, 1829.

[44] For example, in 1830, a general order of the Baltimore County Court resulted in the sale of a lot on Cove Street in Baltimore to satisfy the creditors of William Barney and Thomas Sweeting. See: Baltimore Gazette and Daily Advertiser (Baltimore, Maryland) 17 May 1830, p. 3, col. 3.

[45] “List of Applicants” The Sun (Baltimore, Maryland) 22 October 1838, p. 1, col. 3.

[46] Obituary, The Sun, 20 November 1838, p. 2, col. 4; obituary, Daily National Intelligencer (Washington, DC), 21 November 1838, p. 3, col. 5.

[47] By the time of William’s death, daughters Catherine, Mary, and Marie were already married and out of the household; daughter Caroline married around this time as well.

[48] 1850 U.S. Census, Washington, DC, population schedule, Ward 4, p. 251 (stamped), dwelling 417, family 435, Samuel C. Barney household.

[49] "Struck with Paralysis," news article, Evening Post (New York), 14 August 1871, p. 3, col. 6; "From Washington, By Telegraph And Post" The Argus (Albany, NY) 10 May 1870, p. 2, col. 4.

[50] “The Recent Death of Mrs. Mary Chase Barney.” New York Times (New York) 3 July 1872, p. 8, col. 3.

[51] “Letter from Washington” The Sun (Baltimore, Md.), 2 July 1872, p. 4, col. 1.